miercuri, 28 februarie 2007

Cultura Salcuta in Oltenia. Late Eneolithic.Summary.


In the late eneolithic, in Oltenia and a part of Banat there lived some communities so - called Sălcuţa. The development period of this civilization is characterized by great emigrations, the main perambulation direction in the respective moment going  from East to West.

The research of  vestiges such as Sălcuţa lasts for almost a century, and meanwhile some assessments for this were elaborated both from a chronological and cultural point of view.

The main stratigraphic information originate in  Sălcuţa stratigraphy. In time, these were correlated to some data from mediums in the  neighbourhood Bulgaria - Krivodol and Serbia - Bubanj, coming to the conclusion of a synchronous evolution and a cultural complex which echoes reached over the Egee Sea.

A great period, until 1970, it was said that the evolution of this civilization is extended on four long phases, and these one were being paralleled to Gumelniţa civilization evolution. The research of the vestiges from the Ostrovul Corbului, Almajel, Valea Anilor(district Mehedinti), Cerăt, Şimnic, Verbicioara(district Dolj), Drăgăneşti - Olt, Dobrosloveni, Reşca,(district Olt) locations imposed new cultural and evolutional realities such as:
  - phase IV of  Salcuta is a self - contained civilization .
  - Sălcuţa culture is subsequent to Gumelniţa culture and only within its first phase it might have been contemporaneous with the Gumelniţa communities secluded in the hilly part of Muntenia.
  - Cernavoda populations reached Sălcuţa medium and they are contemporaneous with this one when talking about the classic phase III. There are plentiful materials in Ostrovul Corbului, Salcuţa, Vădastra,Valea Anilor, Drăgăneşti - Olt.
  - Sălcuţa populations used the axes made of coppes, the  Jaszladany type even in the evolutional phase III level (Reşca piece), and the metallurgy of copper was highly developed, all the copper tools  categories from that period being well represented.

          In the present moment we consider that the end of Sălcuţa civilization should not be searched in Sălcuţa phase III level, but in a chronological moment caught before Sălcuţa IV and after Sălcuţa III a and Sălcuţa III b  phases of the Ostrovul Corbului. This chronological reality can be found in Sălcuţa, Almăjel, Cerăt , Şimnic, Almăjel and Drăgăneşti  - Olt locations. This was stratigraphically  found by the scientific explorers but because of the fact that at that time Sălcuţa IV was considered to be the end, they did not insist on this stratigraphic reality and it was regarded as belonging to phase III.

Per ensemble, the known Sălcuţa culture silex tools and weapons are resembling as far as to identical with the similar types found in the area of the Gumelniţa culture.

The number of Sălcuţa locations, totaly or partialy studied is little enough. Representative for this point of view is the location from Piscul Cornişorului, also the informations from the other Sălcuţa prehistoric communities: Almăjel, Cerăt, Şiminic, Ostrovul Corbului, Curmătura, Cuptoare ,, Sfogea ,, Slatina - Timiş.